Hemodialysis and kidney transplant are two methods of helping chronic renal failure. In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney device cleans the blood of wastes and adjusts the composition of ions. During the procedure, blood is taken out of the radial artery in the patient's arm. It then passes through dialysis tubing, which is selectively permeable. The tubing is immersed in a solution . As the blood passes through the tubing, wastes pass out of the tubing and into the surrounding solution. The cleansed blood returns to the body. Kidney transplants also help chronic kidney failure. In this procedure, a surgeon replaces a diseased kidney with a closely matched donor kidney. Although about 23,000 people in the United States wait for donor kidneys each year, fewer than 8,000 receive kidney transplants. Current research aims to develop new drugs to help kidney failure better dialysis membranes for the artificial kidney.
quantity of Na + excreted
FENa, percent = —————————————————— x 100
quantity of Na + filtered