Sucrose can be split into its two component sugars (glucose and fructose). This process is called inversion, and the product is called invert sugar. Commercial invert sugar is a liquid product that contains equal amounts of glucose and fructose. Because fructose is sweeter than either glucose or sucrose, invert sugar is sweeter than white sugar. Commercial liquid invert sugars are prepared as different mixtures of sucrose and invert sugar. For example total invert sugar is half glucose and half fructose, while 50% invert sugar (half of the sucrose has been inverted) is one-half sucrose, one-quarter glucose and one-quarter fructose. Invert sugar is used mainly by food manufacturers to retard the crystallization of sugar and to retain moisture in the packaged food. Which particular invert sugar is used is determined by which function – retarding crystallization or retaining moisture – is required.
Combined hormonal methods contain a synthetic estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) and one of the many progestins approved in the United States. All of the products work by inhibiting ovulation and thickening cervical mucus. The combined estrogen/progestin drugs can be delivered by pills, a patch, or a vaginal ring. The combined hormonal methods have some medical risks, such as blood clots, that are associated with the synthetic estrogen in the product. These risks have not been observed with progestin-only hormonal methods such as injectable birth control, POPs, or hormonal LARCs. Your health care provider can discuss your risk factors and help you select the most appropriate contraceptive method for you.
Remember when you were in school and you had to cram hundreds of pages of textbook material into your head before every big test? If you were like most students, you and your friends probably developed all kinds of tactics to make the grade. Maybe you made flashcards, or reviewed recordings of your professors’ lectures, or came up with intricate mnemonic devices to memorize the material at hand. You may have argued with your classmates about which method was best—but the truth is that, when it comes to learning, one size does not fit all.