Amine hormone that acts like a steroid

Several important peptide hormones are secreted from the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary secretes three hormones: prolactin , which acts on the mammary gland ; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which acts on the adrenal cortex to regulate the secretion of glucocorticoids ; and growth hormone , which acts on bone , muscle , and the liver . The posterior pituitary gland secretes antidiuretic hormone , also called vasopressin, and oxytocin . Peptide hormones are produced by many different organs and tissues, however, including the heart ( atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)) and pancreas ( glucagon , insulin and somatostatin ), the gastrointestinal tract ( cholecystokinin , gastrin ), and adipose tissue stores ( leptin ). [5] [6]

Biogenic amines are naturally present in grapes or can occur during the vinification and aging processes, essentially due to the microorganism’s activity. When present in wines in high amount, biogenic amines may cause not only organoleptic defects but also adverse effects in sensitive human individuals, namely due to the toxicity of histamine, tyramine and putrescine. Even though there are no legal limits for the concentration of biogenic amines in wines, some European countries only recommend maximum limits for histamine. In this sense, biogenic amines in wines have been widely studied. The determination of amines in wines is commonly achieved by liquid chromatography, using derivatization reagents in order to promote its eparation and detection. In alternative, other promising methodologies have been developed using capillary electrophoresis or biosensors, revealing lower costs and faster results, without needing a derivatization step. It is still a challenge to develop faster and inexpensive techniques or methodologies to apply in the wine industry. [9]

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Although glutamine can be produced by the body, it is not able to produce it in sufficient quantities as we age. The consequences are alarming as the substance is responsible for the production of protein. If there is not enough glutamine available, the body takes the necessary protein from the muscles and turns it into glutamine and energy. This means that muscle protein gets lost, muscle strands become thinner and the skin loses its elasticity. The aging skin can be compared to a plant which withers and dries up. Glutamine can slow this process down, which is why scientists refer to it as the “fountain of youth from within”. 6

Amine hormone that acts like a steroid

amine hormone that acts like a steroid

Although glutamine can be produced by the body, it is not able to produce it in sufficient quantities as we age. The consequences are alarming as the substance is responsible for the production of protein. If there is not enough glutamine available, the body takes the necessary protein from the muscles and turns it into glutamine and energy. This means that muscle protein gets lost, muscle strands become thinner and the skin loses its elasticity. The aging skin can be compared to a plant which withers and dries up. Glutamine can slow this process down, which is why scientists refer to it as the “fountain of youth from within”. 6

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